DEFINITION- NASA defines climate change as: “a broad range of global phenomena created predominantly by burning fossil fuels, which add heat-trapping gases to earth’s atmosphere”. Chapter 2. Climate change is a major threat to agriculture. Climate Change Adaptation in ETHIOPIA October 2011 Severe weather events such as droughts and floods have historically imposed heavy costs in Ethiopia. The overall climate of the province is marked by considerable seasonality and volatility, often with short-term changes to the weather patterns that can be difficult to predict. 300 days of sunshine, blue sky and warm weather makes Namibia a unique travel destination. Climate can thus be viewed as a synthesis or aggregate of weather. It is tilted at an angle of 23.5° to the perpendicular plane of its orbital path. Which of the following climatic controls is the most important? 9 Overall, climatologists tend to agree that the Sahel’s climate is one of extremes: this implies that exceptional weather and climatic events are paradoxically the norm, especially if longer time-spans are examined. action on climate change, is helping adaptation efforts in developing countries. The influence of weather and climate on the different components of crop production can vary, and often happen at the same time. Climate data records provide evidence of climate change key indicators, such as global land and ocean temperature increases; rising sea levels; ice loss at Earth’s poles and in mountain glaciers; frequency and severity changes in extreme weather such as hurricanes, heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, floods and precipitation; and cloud and vegetation cover changes, to name but a few. It is much more tolerant to warm conditions than Arabica coffee. The three main categories of health risks include: (i) direct-acting effects (e.g. Worldwide, farmers are struggling to keep up with shifting weather patterns and increasingly unpredictable water supplies. climate change will also exert evolutionary pressure on species. Climate change, Ethiopia, Mitigation, Vulnerability. Kolla (Tropical zone) - is below 1830 metres in elevation and has an average annual temperature of about 27 … This assessment focuses on “attributable risk”: Weather and Climate The Structure of the Atmosphere Surrounding the Earth is a gaseous envelope or atmosphere, held in place by the planet’s gravitational attraction. Economic sectors that largely depend on Farms are more likely to face attacks from weeds, diseases and pests, which affect yield. (IPCC, 2014b) Resilience: The capacity of social, economic and environmental … (a) Due to moderating effect of the seas (b) Due to land mass (c) Due to heat conditions (d) Due to none of the above three. This makes it difficult to understand the climatic impacts on respective components of crop production. Changes in ocean circulation may affect the climate through the movement of CO2 into or out of the atmosphere. Discussion Paper: Climate, Sanitation and Health - DRAFT 5 Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Greenhouse gases have a strong affect on climate. Air pressure 4. The scientists from the World Weather Attribution group have agreed to conduct the detailed study, which would involve the precise setting of the parameters in space and time of the rainfall episode being studied, along with the data associated with it, the Climate Center, a specialist center of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), said on Monday. Visibility CONTROLS 1. 6. ELEMENTS 1. It is affected by long-term trends in average rainfall and temperature, interannual climate variability, shocks during specific phenological ii stages, and extreme weather events (IPCC, 2012). Climate change poses a wide range of risks to population health. Measured data on climate and weather in Ethiopia are scarce, as there are very few weather stations. CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE IN ETHIOPIA: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS | 5 Figure 1: Map showing management districts in Ethiopia with the FFP areas highlighted. There is some common pattern over a few weeks or months. 1. This implies that the Ethiopia Weather & Climate Zones of . Where, how and when we grow food is vitally connected to our climate's normal patterns. Table 1: Details of the FFP areas. The projected impacts of climate change may affect the consequences of these events, and could potentially hinder advancements in key development areas such as food security, water The emerging science of Probabilistic Event Attribution (PEA) [7], however, increasingly allows a quantitative assessment of the extent to which human-induced climate change is affecting local weather events [8-11]. Storms 10. (a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Pressure and wind system (d) Continentality. 7. 1.1 Introduction . Description of the climate system and its components . Cloudiness 8. Subpopulations at the warmer edges of species ranges are being extirpated, causing a loss in genetic diversity (Thomas, 2005). Ethiopia is in the tropical zone laying between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Both climate variability and change have been occurring in Ethiopia. Disturbance Regimes and Ecosystem-Level Change Climate change has the potential to have a profound effect … They are subject to many influences, including those of the atmosphere, ocean, and land, and are modified by them. A large amount of work has already been carried out by many countries on assessing impacts and vulnerabilities to climate change, as well as considering possible adaptation options. They are: Days are cool or hot; Windy or calm; Cloudy or bright and; Wet or dry. The Ethiopian Government has already put in place a number of policies, strategies and programs aimed at enhancing the adaptive capacity and reducing climate variability and change. Climate. Land and water 4. On the basis of the generalised monthly atmospheric conditions, the year is divided into seasons like winter, summer or rainy seasons. Chapter III covers how assessments on climate Ethiopia: Climate & Weather. It has three different climate zones according to elevation. With an average of 300 days of sunshine annually Namibia is one of the sunniest countries in worldwide. Latitudes 2. The Earth’s atmosphere is a complex dynamical, physical, and chemical system. Rural livelihood systems – crop cultivation, pastoralism, and agro-pastoralism – are highly sensitive to climate. Article Type: Review This review highlights climate change and its drivers, impacts, and mitigation and adaptation options in Ethiopia. Chapter 1. Introduction. They're totaled and averaged to give an idea of the climate you can expect in a specific area. Climate change and variability in the Sub-Saharan Africa has considerable impact on agriculture, human health, livestock and the economy (Lipp et al., 2002, Haines and Patz, 2004, Confalonieri et al., 2007, Oscar et al., 2015).According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (), there is significant warming occurring in the Sub-Saharan African countries. Like location, climate has been a decisive factor in shaping the Newfoundland and Labrador experience. Earth orbital changes - The earth makes one full orbit around the sun each year. Winds 7. Dyna-mic processes cover a large range of scales from the microscopic-scale Humidity 5. Weather changes daily or hourly in some locations. The climate can generally be described as temperate, especially in the large central plateau region. extreme weather events to past GHG emissions, even in principle. (WHO, 1948) Mitigation of climate change: A human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Evidences show that … Climate information for Ethiopia including average temperature, rain and snowfall totals Examples of countries that have this climate are Kenya, Colombia, and Ethiopia (Illy, 21). Solar radiation 3. Some of the attempts, such as by You and Ringler (2010), to quantify the effect of climate change in Ethiopia used global models which may misrepresent various dimensions of the Ethiopian economy. iii. The effects of gradual climate changes and extreme weather events in the recent past have undermined progress in the alleviation of poverty and food insecurity, while also having a negative effect on overall development efforts. However, heat waves can affect the Red Sea and the surrounding area to the east and also in the west in the area bordering Sudan. Alongside UNDP’s extensive country coverage and programming on poverty reduction and climate change, UN Environment brings its strong global network of insurance companies and other private partners, UNISDR brings its expertise analyzing loss and damage from climate impacts, and WFP leverages its capacity as the world’s largest humanitarian agency with a key focus on social protection … Brightness of the Sun 9. While climate change may disproportionately affect women, it has also led them to seize the levers of power in a moment of profound precarity, to rewrite the rules of society when the current systems of power and economy no longer seem feasible. As variation of solar radiation is the single most important factor affecting climate, it is considered here first. Drought is the single most destructive climate-related natural hazard in Of those that do exist, we bought all available data from the Ethiopian Climate Institute, which your find summarized below. An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation is called (a) coriolis force Ethiopia faces numerous development challenges that exacerbate its vulnerability to climate change, including high levels of food insecurity and ongoing conflicts over natural resources. Robusta coffee is grown at much lower altitudes (sea level-3000 feet) in an area 10° North and South of the equator (Illy, 22). Climate doesn’t change as rapidly as weather does because it’s a compilation of several years of recorded weather conditions like rain, air pressure, humidity, wind, snow, sun and temperatures. Climate is traditionally defined as the description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind. Altitude 3. Further, different types of climatic extremes can affect crop production differently. Coffee lovers now consume more than 2.25 billion cups a day, but climate change may increase the cost and harm the taste of this popular beverage--not to mention threaten the livelihoods of … Marked temperature increases in Mali, 8 for instance, contrast with Niger’s temperatures, which are also rising, but below the mean global warming level. Temperature 2. Climate and Weather of Namibia Namibia – one of the sunniest countries in the world. Crop production is highly sensitive to climate. Black dots indicate locations of available weather stations relevant to the FFP areas. ii. Precipitation 6. See Table 1 for details of each area. While greenhouse gases are a natural part of the atmosphere, the amount has increased over the past 150 years as fossil fuels have been burned and the amount of forests, which naturally take up the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide during photosynthesis , has shrunk. larger effect on the economy as compared to a corresponding increase in temperature. Climate - Climate - Solar radiation and temperature: Air temperatures have their origin in the absorption of radiant energy from the Sun. These gases trap heat through a process called the greenhouse effect . ELEMENTS AND CONTROLS OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE When studying weather or climate, the elements and controls of each are interchangeable. If global climate change continues on its current trajectory, these risks will increase in future decades to potentially critical levels. 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